Talk 4 Writing
1. Baseline Assessment And Planning – The ‘Cold’ Task
Teaching is focused by initial assessment. Generally, teachers use what is known as a ‘cold’ task or ‘have a go’. An interesting and rich starting point provides the stimulus and content but there is no initial teaching. The aim of this is to see what the children can do independently at the start of a unit, drawing on their prior learning. Assessment of their writing helps the teacher work out what to teach the whole class, different groups and adapt the model text and plan. Targets can be set for individuals. By the end of the unit, pupils complete a ‘hot’ task or ‘show us what you know’ which is an independent task on a similar type of writing with a good stimulus. Progress should be evident which encourages pupils and helps schools track the impact of teaching.
2. The Imitation Stage
The teaching usually begins with some sort of creative ‘hook’ which engages the pupils, often with a sense of enjoyment, audience and purpose. Writing challenges provide a sense of purpose. The model text is pitched well above the pupils’ level and has built into it the underlying, transferable structures and language patterns that students will need when they are writing. This is learned using a ‘text map’ and actions to strengthen memory and help students internalise the text. Activities such as drama are used to deepen understanding of the text.
Once students can ‘talk like the text’, the model, and other examples, are then read for vocabulary and comprehension before being analysed for the basic text (boxing up) and language patterns as well as writing techniques or toolkits. All of this first phase is underpinned by rehearsing key spellings and grammatical patterns.
3. The Innovation Stage
Once students are familiar with the model text, then the teacher leads them into creating their own versions. A new subject is presented and the teacher leads students through planning. With younger pupils, this is based on changing the basic map and retelling new versions. Older students use boxed-up planners and the teacher demonstrates how to create simple plans and orally develop ideas prior to writing. Ideas may need to be generated and organised or information researched and added to a planner. Shared and guided writing is then used to stage writing over a number of days. Feedback is given dso that students can be taught how to improve their writing, make it more accurate, until they can increasingly edit in pairs or on their own.
4. Independent Application – The ‘Hot’ Task
Eventually, students move on to the third phase, which is when they apply independently what has been taught and practised. Before this happens, the teacher may decide to give further input and rehearsal. Students are guided through planning, drafting and revising their work independently. The final piece is used as the ‘hot’ task and is assessed by the teacher.
It is important that at the innovation and independent application stage, the writing becomes increasingly independent of the original model rather than a pale copy. Whilst four-year-olds may only make a few simple changes, older students should be adding, embellishing, altering and manipulating the original structure. From Key Stage 2 onwards, almost all children will be using the text structure and writing tools to write, drawing on the model plus their wider reading and experience.