Writing (including Spelling, Grammar & Punctuation)
The programmes of study for writing in EYFS, Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 are constructed similarly to those for reading. They consist of:
- transcription (spelling and handwriting)
- composition (articulating ideas and structuring them in speech and writing).
Teaching develops pupils’ competence in these two dimensions. In addition, pupils are taught how to plan, draft, revise & evaluate and proof read their own writing. These aspects of writing are incorporated into the programmes of study for composition. Writing down ideas fluently depends on effective transcription: that is, on spelling quickly and accurately through knowing the relationship between sounds and letters (phonics) and understanding the morphology (word structure) and orthography (spelling structure) of words. Effective composition involves forming, articulating and communicating ideas, and then organising them coherently for the intended audience and reader. This requires clarity, awareness of the audience, purpose and context, and an increasingly wide knowledge of vocabulary and grammar. Writing also depends on fluent, legible and, eventually, speedy handwriting.
Spelling, vocabulary, grammar, punctuation
Pupils are taught the age-related requirements for spelling, grammar and punctuation.
Throughout the programmes of study, teachers introduce pupils to a wide range of vocabulary to support their learning and to enable pupils to discuss their reading, writing and spoken language. Opportunities for teachers to introduce new vocabulary occur in reading and writing lessons and throughout the wider curriculum.
As vocabulary increases, teachers show pupils how to understand the relationships between words (including etymology), how to understand nuances in meaning, and how to develop their understanding of, and ability to use, figurative language. They also teach pupils how to work out and clarify the meanings of unknown words and words with more than one meaning.